We believe firmly that discussions about the wisdom and efficacy of affirmative action and preferences should focus on questions of policy and efficacy.  Is there a need for such programs?  If so, how should they be shaped and implemented?  And are they effective, producing results that justify their use and compensate for any social or political costs they impose?

            That said, one persistent reality is that these programs inevitably end up in court.  Which means that those interested in them need to be familiar with the litigation process, where one can find judicial decisions, and, in particular, how to read them.  The links and subtabs from this page provide an initial discussion of such matters.